What are the differences between power lithium battery and energy storage lithium battery?
In 2020, the proportion of LiFePO4 batteries will continue to rise. In November, the proportion of LiFePO4 batteries in all materials has reached 44.4%.
According to statistics, China's power battery loading capacity in November was 10.6gwh, up 68.8% year-on-year and 80.9% month on month, of which lithium iron phosphate battery loading capacity was 4.7gwh, up 91.4% year-on-year and 95.5% month on month.
The quietly rising temperature of LiFePO4 battery is due to both policy adjustment and the launch of high cost-effective vehicles.
Before 2020, the subsidy policy is oriented by high mileage, so car companies are also pursuing high mileage in the research and development of car models to obtain the Optimal Subsidy; however, by 2020, the models with mileage less than 300 km can no longer be subsidized, and some enterprises have to start to reduce the pursuit of mileage and launch high cost-effective models.
From January to November 2020, the proportion of A00 models increased from 21.9% in 2019 to 31.3%. Wuling Hongguang and Great Wall Euler, which are the main A00 models, have respectively achieved 81000 and 42000 sales in the first 11 months, ranking third and fifth in the sales list of pure electric vehicles.
In addition to the A00 / A0 class cars, the standard range version of Tesla Model 3 also uses lithium iron phosphate batteries; Volkswagen made it clear at the China auto forum in August that lithium iron phosphate batteries will be used in the future; Mercedes Benz put forward the idea of using lithium iron phosphate batteries for low and medium range models at the strategy press conference in October.
At the same time, the production and marketing situation, market concentration, price and production process of LiFePO4 battery are also changing.
From the perspective of production and marketing data, the output of lithium iron phosphate was about 70000 tons in 2016, and remained at 70000-80000 tons in 2017-2018. The total output increased to 90000-100000 tons in 2019 due to the demand growth in energy storage field. In 2020, due to the strong demand in the second half of the year, the output of lithium iron phosphate increased to 140000 tons.
In 2021, the demand of new energy vehicles, heavy trucks, ships, electrochemical energy storage and other fields will be released together. It is estimated that the minimum demand of LiFePO4 will be 250000 tons next year.
In terms of market concentration, the market concentration of LiFePO4 battery in 2020 is relatively high, with several leading enterprises accounting for about 80% - 90% of the market share. German nano, Wanrun, Bertrand and Yuneng are basically suppliers of Ningde era.
In terms of price, the price of LiFePO4 has increased since early November, with a normal increase of 2000 yuan / ton, while the price of raw material lithium carbonate has increased by more than 10000 yuan / ton.
The main reason for this phenomenon is that the leading enterprises in the material end are concentrated and supply to the downstream battery enterprises in a fixed way. In this supply and demand pattern, the possibility of price transmission to the downstream is small; while the raw material end can supply to other industries in addition to LiFePO4 materials due to the relatively standardized products, so it has more choices in the downstream supply.
At present, the price of mainstream LiFePO4 is 35000-40000 yuan / ton, the price of LiFePO4 for energy storage is 31000 yuan / ton, and the price of LiFePO4 for power is 35000 yuan / ton.
In terms of production process, the current lithium iron phosphate battery mainly has the following process routes:
1. Iron phosphate process, which is the mainstream process of lithium iron phosphate battery in China at present, is adopted by BYD, Beida Xianxian and GuoXuan high tech. its advantages lie in the high capacity and compaction density of the product;
2. Iron nitrate process, the capacity of the product produced by this process is slightly lower, but the consistency is better, and the cost is more controllable;
3. Iron red process. The main advantage of this process lies in the low cost of products, and the disadvantage lies in the low capacity and compaction density. At present, it is more suitable for energy storage batteries. Under this process, 80% - 90% of the products flow to the field of energy storage;
4. Hydrothermal process. The cost of this process is very high, and the product can reach 70000-80000 yuan / ton. Its advantage lies in its good low temperature performance and rate performance. However, due to its high price, most of the products are used in the field of military industry;
5. Lithium phosphate process, a new process launched this year, has the advantage of low cost, but the source of lithium phosphate products is not stable.
From the perspective of production technology, LiFePO4 battery is not perfect, but it is undeniable that the market demand of LiFePO4 battery is still strong based on its advantages of high safety, long cycle life and low manufacturing cost.
In addition to new energy vehicles, the demand of 5g base station, electrochemical energy storage, two wheeled vehicles and other fields also shows a rapid growth trend, especially in the field of energy storage, which may become the second battlefield of lithium iron phosphate battery.